Challenging students in the Classroom

ICT Teaching Strategies

By Michael Hilkemeijer

 

If there is ever to be a more challenging learning area to teach in schools today then it either has to be about using technology in the classroom (elementary). 

As an experienced ICT teacher, I can honestly tell you that there has never been a dull moment in my classes. 

My experiences is partly due to the many great conversations I have had with students but also as a result of working within an industry that has a tremendous influence and impact on our lives. 

What makes it interesting is the continual changes that are occurring within society and the need for teachers to integrate ICT effectively so that students meet the requirements of their future professions and be ICT capable/literate.

 

The ability of teachers to challenge students with ICT in the classroom is crucial if this goal is to be achieved. Children today are fluent with technology even more than the generations before them. 

As a teacher, you need to set challenges for students with ICT that will help them progress further in their capabilities. Studies conducted in the UK have indicated the lack of challenge presented to students in lessons can have a negative impact on a student’s learning.

 

Gauging the level of challenge for ICT activities can be difficult particularly as the children progress in their capabilities. Some children may be highly proficient when using one piece of software but inexperienced with another.

The difference between confident users of ICT and inexperienced ones is that confident users have a greater repertoire of knowledge from which to draw. They will continue to try things out until eventually something happens; either the computer carries out the required task or it does not.

 

How do you challenge students of high capabilities in ICT?

 

  1. Provide them with content-free software

Research shows that you will not only be able to challenge students intellectually by giving opportunities to use programs such word processors, spreadsheets and drawing and painting in meaningful and context driven tasks, but you will also develop their ICT capabilities alongside the subject learning.

The computer for one, must always be used as a tool for learning and the student must be in control at all times.

 

  1. Give them more sophisticated programs when the curriculum context asks for it

This is the best way to ensure that progression occurs for the student. Don’t just give them sophisticated software just because you can. If this type of software is required by the curriculum activity then it is essential that you provide them with it.

 

  1. Challenge naïve ideas about handling ICT tools

This is following on from being able to develop their ICT capabilities and focusing on the concepts behind the ICT skills in the primary classroom.

It can occur in whole class teaching, where appropriate, and when monitoring the progress of individuals or groups.

 

For example:

When students use spaces to spread out text on a line or page – show the effect of adding extra text so that the spaces move to a different position on the line.

If they use the backspace key to delete back to an earlier mistake and retype – set a task the editing of previously composed text to achieve a different goal.

When type calculations in a spreadsheet using values directly instead of formulae in the cell references – change the values in the cells and point out the incorrect result from the calculations based the previous values.

 

  1. Track their progression in ICT capability

If you devise a system that will accurately assess and record their progress in learning it will enable you to avoid not only teaching them ICT skills which they may already know but also to determine what they don’t know and therefore, set them challenges to accomplish these capabilities in ICT.

 

  1. Set them challenges in the subject content or the style and mode of presentation

One example which research gives (Bennett, Hamill, & Pickford, 2007, p. 60) is “if a pair of children is working on a slide for a presentation, you could ask them whether they have thought about changing the size of the text, including another picture or modifying the content of the text so that it makes more sense.”

To help them make progress in their ICT capabilities it will be important for you to intervene in order to show them more advanced ICT techniques or to show them a feature of the software which could enable them to be more productive in their use of time.

 

  1. Let them plan, or at least negotiate, what they might try

Students are bound to have their own idea about what they want to do, so you might want to encourage this. It is a good idea to have model or plan they can follow.

 

  1. Let them teach

Give the students the chance to act as experts and allow peer tutoring.

 

  1. Set them a challenge in a drill and practice program

If you have one of these in the classroom, crank up the level and set them a challenge to do this.

 

  1. Keep the software handbook handy

If a bright student needs answers then provide them the handbook.

 

  1. Draw further support from the following resources

  • the manual for the software — it has usually been written with the ‘average’ teacher in mind
  • the on-screen help menu — most programs include on-screen help, either designed for the pupil or the teacher
  • experimentation — computers are quite happy to provide you with feedback if you make a mistake; keep trying things until something happens; if in doubt, close the program; as a last resort, turn off the computer (hold in the power button for five seconds on most computers)
  • the children — if you get stuck, ask if any children have found a way of solving the problem; if they have not, they might be able to suggest a strategy which they have developed for tackling similar problems and might be able to find a solution or interpret the manual if you are finding it particularly unhelpful
  • the internet — visit the software company's website to see if there are any help files. If it is a problem to which you can find no solution, send them an e-mail asking for advice. They are usually very responsive; most educational software suppliers rely on recommendation by teachers to other teachers to spread the word about their products.
  • a colleague — others on the staff may have experienced the same problem and found a solution; the ICT coordinator might know what to do, or might know a colleague in another school who could help
  • a friend — one of your friends might be quite a confident user of computers and might be able to find a solution or interpret the manual if you are finding it particularly unhelpful.

 

 

 

Conclusion

My advice is to choose a program that has many applications for students to use across the learning areas and is one that you are already familiar with. Try to master these programs, so that when the children come to use them you have rehearsed their tasks to an extent whereby you are able to cope with most problems and issues that might arise. You can never be prepared for the unexpected, but gaining confidence with the software will help.

 

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